Let us now visit Ivangorodskaya (and Narvskaya) fortresses
As I mentioned before, initial version of the fortress was built during the resign of Ivan III in 1492 – it is precisely where the city of Ivangorod received its name.
This was done in response to German (Livonian) fortress in Narva (on the opposite river bank).
Who built the fortress is not known. It is believed that the foreman was blinded, so he couldn’t build another fortress like this (taking into account the wide use of legend it isn’t clear, where they found so many foremen. As the saying goes: “If all guys into the cement, there’ll be no one to work with” :).
Back then the fortress on Devichie mountain was small and square (about 10 times smaller than now). According to the legend, to determine the size of the future fortress people took horse skin, cut it into narrow strips and tied them together. Locals then began calling the Ivangorod “the city of horse skin.”
To receive provisions, fortress was connected by roads to Koporie and Yiam.
In 1496 in a matter of 7 hours the fortress was taken over by the Swedish, but for a very short time – at the sight of the nearing Russian army Swedish ran.
It was then decided to enlarge the size of the fortress. Under the direction of Ivan Gundor and Michail Kliapin the new fortress (“Bolshoi Boyarshiy gorod”) was built in 12 weeks (one summer season).
In 1507 under the direction of Vladimir Torgkan and Markus Grek new walls and towers were built (“Zamok”) – therefore the result was a fortress inside a fortress. Now however the walls came out right to the river, which made a siege considerably more difficult.
At the beginning on XVII century “Peredniy Gorod” was built. This completed the construction on the fortress.
During the Great Patriotic War, while retreating, Germans bombed most of the fortress towers, after that our own artillery shootings finished the task.
On the photo – Nabatnaya tower.
In ancient times there was also a lowering metal gate here.
Here is how Ivangorodskaya fortress looked in 1914.
On the left Dlinosheyaya tower, and on the right – Nabatnaya.
The local tour guide mentioned that recently there was an attempt to restore the roof of the tower, but almost immediately someone burned it again.
Nikolskaya church (on the left) and Uspenskaya (on the right). On the left Proviantskaya tower, on the right - Vorotnaya.
Nikolskaya church was built in 1496.
It is said, within 24 hours.
On the background – Vorotnaya tower.
On the far right, it seems Shirokaya tower.
When the first Ivangorodkaya fortress was built, a Livonian scribe wrote:
“Moskovit built in 1492 strong castle on the other side of the river Narva on the bank, right against the river Narva, to the point that from Narvsky castle one could almost throw a rock into the city [Ivangorod]".
From the wall opens a panoramic view of the city Narva.
Besides the version of the appearance of the name “Narva” that I noted in the previous album, there also exists at least two others:
“Its name Narva (or Nerva – in some authors) received from the name of narovskoy chudi that resided here” (“chud’”- the name of ancient Finnish population).
Remarkably, the mockery name of the Finnish – “chuhnia,” “chuhonetz” often used before the Revolution and even today, came from precisely the word “chud.’”
Ancient version of the meaning of the name Narva – “Gerodot mentions the tribe of nevriev in the countries north of Germany.”
Russians previously called Narva – Rugodiv. The name came from the name of the Finnish – Ugorsky god Rukotivo – “spirit – the protector of rye.”
As in regard to Narvsky castle – it was called “Vishgorod.”
Panoramic view of Narva today with newly built apartment buildings and seen at a distance (to the left) the church.
And on the right, one can see the fortress.
The fortress construction was begun by the Dutch in 1270’s.
In the middle of XIV century the fortress in the procession of the Germans was reconstructed. At the end of the XIV century a circular city wall with fortress towers was built. In XVII century the fortress was perfected by the Swedish.
Russians occupied Narva more than once.
For the first time in 1557 Livonian knights disturbed the peace, when they began shooting at Ivangorod. In response, the Russians took over and almost completely destroyed Narva. Ivan IV ordered two Orthodox churches to be built. At the end of 1580’s this time Swedish won over the possession of Narva and occupied Ivangorod. In 1590 they returned Ivangorod to Russia on peaceful terms, but kept Narva for themselves.
In 1704 the troops of Peter I took over Narva, about which he wrote: “Her Grotvader. I cannot write different, only Narva, which 4 years ago vesicated, today, thank God, broke through, about which I will tell more in person. – Piter.”
It has been said, that after the occupation the Swedish (locals) asked Peter I to allow them the rights, privileges and land. Peter asked: “- And what else do you want? - Except rights, privileges and land we do not want anything else. - Good! Your rights I will grant you, privileges and lands will leave for you; but because you yourself forgot God, I will take away your churches.”
Therefore, Lutheran churches were converted into Orthodox :)
The tall tower (about 50 meters) called “Dliniy German.” Built in 1535 specifically to observe what is happening behind the fortress wall of Ivangorod.
In 1593 the height of the tower was increased, but the height of the wall in Ivangorod was increased as well :)
Now a museum is operating in the tower.
Taking into account the fair condition of Narvskaya fortress in comparison to the Ivangorodskaya fortress, I have a question – did the Germans bombed only Ivangorod, and ignored Narva?
Russian-Estonian border from the Russian side of the bridge.
As a child, at the end of 1980’s, I passed here on the bus, across Narva to Tallin.
And now one needs a visa..
The bridge across the river Narva between Narva (on the left) and Ivangorod (on the right). Let me remind you, the border between Estonia and Russia goes across the river.
The bridge is called: Bridge Druzba (Friendship). As a rule, it is written: Bridge “of Friendship.” Which is probably correct taking into account the rules of the Russian language, but in this situation the quotes seem too much out of place.
There’s yet another amusing moment. Local tour guide expressed some frustration over the fact that Estonians recently established a monument to Karl XII “Swedish Lion,” just so he is visible from Ivangorod. As if to the enemy – Russia :).
However, as it became clear, this monument was restored (destroyed during the war), and initially installed back in 1936.
A print of 1867. On the left Ivangorod, on the right – Narva.
It is necessary to note, the style of the houses and fences on the foreground didn’t dramatically change in the last one hundred years :).